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Ask the Aish Rabbi a Question

Recent Questions:

Maoz Tzur

I remember singing Maoz Tzur as a child during Chanukah. What does this song mean, and how does it go?

The Aish Rabbi Replies:

The first two words of the song, "Maoz Tzur," mean "Stronghold of Rock," a reference to God. The song goes on to describe the various oppressors who have risen against the Jewish people (Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, Haman, Antiochus), and how they have ultimately all been defeated. The song also expresses our wish for the final redemption.

The popular melody is associated with an old German folk-song "So weiss ich eins," dating back to the 15th century. You can hear it sung at:

Here are the words:

Maoz tzur yeshua-si

Lecha na-eh li-sha-beyach

Tikone bais ti-fee-lasi

Vi-sham todah ni-za-beyach.

Li-ase ta-chin mat-beyach

Mee-tzar ham-na-beyach

Az eg-more vi-sheer meez-mor

Chanukas ha-meez-beyach

Az eg-more vi-sheer meez-mor

Chanukas ha-meez-beyach.


O Rock of my salvation, with delight we praise You.

Restore the Temple where we will bring offerings.

When You will eliminate our enemies,

Then I shall sing at the rededication.

Have a happy Chanukah!

Sanctity of Human Body

You recently referred to the “Bodies” exhibit in which you elucidated your opinion that it flies in the face of the sanctity of the human body. I have trouble fathoming what sanctity there is to the human body any more than any other animal body. I assume you would not take such issue with an exhibit of animal bodies showing their anatomy, and would like to understand why your perspective is so different for humans, necessitating burial and nothing else.

The Aish Rabbi Replies:

The holiness of the human body can be understood on a few levels. One area the Torah reveals this is in the prohibition to maim or inflict any wound upon the body unnecessarily. Even if one wants to do so, we were not given that license as our bodies were not given to us to do as we want, rather entrusted to us as a sacred trust from the Almighty to use this body owned by Him. This is much as we do not own our children to do with them as we please, but were entrusted with them to help nurture them to grow in their own paths and lives.

The body is said to be a partner with the soul in its struggle to serve God in this world. There isn’t a single mitzvah that the soul can perform without its cohort the body. God purposely set up the world in that way, with animals that are all body, angels that are all soul, and man who is the combination of the two. This is the underlying foundation for the Jewish belief in the eventual Revival of the Dead. That period, also known as “Olam Haba” or the Next World, the final world of the ultimate reward, must first be ushered in by the reunification of the bodies with their souls. Why is this so? Why cannot the souls themselves, which are eternal, receive that reward?

My late mentor, Rabbi Shlomo Wolbe explained that it is only fair that both partners, the body and the soul, should together share in the final, ultimate bliss which could only come about as the result of their partnership. Since all the mitzvot were performed with the body, the soul could not possible receive that reward alone. This speaks volumes about the way we look at the human body.

The Kabbalistic writings closely connect every limb, muscle and sinew of the human body to a specific mitzvah of the Torah. There are said to be a count of 248 limbs and 365 main sinews of the body, corresponding the 248 positive mitzvot (the “do’s”) and the 365 negative mitzvot (the “don’ts”). Every time a mitzvah is performed, the part of that body which parallels that mitzvah becomes elevated and sanctified.

Throughout the Torah we find God described in human terms: He took us out of Egypt with an “outstretched arm,” His “eyes” are upon us, He “hears” our affliction, etc. This is difficult to understand as it is a core belief of Judaism that God has no physicality.

One answer given by the commentators is that this are anthropomorphisms, meaning just a way for us to have an inkling of what is happened using human experiences we can appreciate and fathom.

The deeper answer given by the Kabbalists is that all that God performs in this world is parallel to similar attributes in the human body. There is a type of “spiritual human body” which is the sum total of all the upper, spiritual worlds. God created the physical human body in sync with all that He wishes to relate and express through His divine providence throughout all of human history. This is an entirely new insight on the loftiness and holiness of the human body; its very essence is nothing less than an expression of Godliness in the world. This is implicit in the verse that man was created “in the image of God” (Gen. 1:27).

This explains the tremendous responsibility we hold to be the proper stewards of the gift of the body we have received, and our obligation to treat it with the proper respect and sanctity it deserves.

Easy Fast

Every year as Yom Kippur approaches, I get into an anxiety mode. I have a really hard time fasting without food or water for an entire day. I try to eat a huge meal right before the fast, but it only seems to make me thirsty, and by the next morning I am starving. By the afternoon I am either wiped out in bed, or clawing at the refrigerator door!

Do you have any advice for me?

The Aish Rabbi Replies:

Fasting for 25 hours on Yom Kippur is undeniably difficult. But there is one thing that can make everything easier:


Most people think the challenge of fasting is feeling "hungry." In truth, avoiding thirst is much more important. The average person can survive for a month without food - but only three days without water.

With proper hydration, not only do you avoid the discomfort of thirst, but you also swallow more frequently, so your stomach does not feel as empty.

A large part of successful fasting is in the mind. Talking about your hunger will only focus your attention on food and make things more difficult. The key here is to distract your mind from food. The more you immerse yourself in prayer, the less you'll think about food.

Fasting is easier if you prepare your body in advance. See this article for "Seven Simple Steps" to maximize your hydration on Yom Kippur - leaving you with more strength and energy to do the truly important spiritual work of the day.

For more details, read's “Seven Steps to an Easy Fast.”

Wishing you an easy fast and a meaningful Yom Kippur!