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Against All Odds

Against All Odds

Which was the bigger miracle: The military victory or the eight days of oil?

by and

The Talmud (Shabbos 21b) asks the question: Why do we celebrate Chanukah?

The Talmud answers that the reason that we celebrate Chanukah is because when the Greeks entered the Holy Temple, they defiled all the oil set aside for lighting the Menorah. When the Hasmoneans were victorious, they searched and were able to find only one small jug of oil with the High Priest’s seal intact. It had sufficient oil to last only one day, but miraculously it lasted eight days. In honor of this miracle, the Sages inaugurated these days for Hallel prayers and thanksgiving.

This statement of the Talmud seems to contradict what we say in Al Hanisim, a prayer written hundreds of years earlier. In Al Hanisim, we thank God for the miracle of the war -- for delivering the Greek armies into our hands:

"You fought their battles, judged their judgments, took their revenge. You put the mighty into the hands of the weak, the many into the hands of the few…"

According to Al Hanisim, the miracle of Chanukah was that God delivered us from the Greek armies. Yet the Talmud says that we celebrate Chanukah because of the miracle of the oil lasting eight days.

Which one is correct?

The Maharal of Prague explains that both are true. The actual event for which we give thanks is the salvation of the Jewish people. We won a war against all odds. However, it wasn't clear that the victory was a miracle. To the people living in those times, military success was attributed to Jewish resilience and bravery. It didn't appear that God had delivered us from the hands of the Greeks; rather, it appeared as if the victory came about (as the verse in Deut. 8:17 warns) through the soldiers’ "might and strength of their arms."

It was only through the miracle of the oil that the Jews came to appreciate the miracle of the battle. Once people saw the oil last eight days -- an overt miracle from God -- they then understood that their success on the battlefield was from God as well. The miracle of the oil revealed to them the miracle of the war.

No Standing Army

This explanation of the Maharal, however, becomes difficult to understand when we take into account a basic historical overview.

The events of Chanukah take place in the second century BCE, around the middle of the era of the second Holy Temple. A few hundred years earlier, when the Babylonians had destroyed the first Holy Temple, the Jewish people began to lived under the reign of non-Jewish monarchies. We were a vassal state under foreign rule, and our right to exist and our form of government was decided by the ruling parties. So when the Greeks entered Jerusalem, the Jewish people did not even have a standing army.

This wasn't a war of a stronger army against a weaker opponent. It was a war in which the most powerful empire in the world was pitted against a band of unorganized, unarmed, private citizens.

The Jews were outnumbered, outgunned and less battle-ready than their enemies.

While the war itself lasted three years, during the first year of fighting, there were no formal battles. Two armies were not squaring off against each other -- because there was no Jewish army! The fighting consisted of guerrilla skirmishes. Some Jews would sneak up on a lone detail of Greek soldiers, kill them, and take their weapons. Bit by bit, more Jews would join Judah the Maccabee. But at every point, the Jews were far outnumbered, outgunned and preposterously less battle-ready than their enemies.

Even more startling is that almost all of the original fighters had no battle experience. The leaders of the rebellion were kohanim, priests in the Holy Temple. A kohen is a Torah teacher who guides the Jewish people in matters of spirituality. So this was a war led and fought not by soldiers, but by the rabbis. Imagine a venerated sage leading his yeshiva into battle against the U.S. Marine Corps!

How could anyone not see the miracle of the war? No intelligent assessment of the situation would have predicted a Jewish victory. How then is it possible that the Jews at the time saw these events as anything other than the miracles that they clearly were?

The Oil Event

The answer to this question seems to be that when one is many years away and far removed, he gains a historical vantage point. He is able to see an event in context and can easily recognize it as a miracle. But to those living in the day-to-day heat of the battle, it is much more difficult to see the event from that perspective.

To those involved, it seemed to be a natural course of events. Granted, the odds were slim, but the Jews won. Skirmish after skirmish, battle after battle, the Maccabees came out victorious. There is no question that they did well, which is why it seemed that their skill and cunning won those wars. As such, to the people living in those times, the miracle was hidden.

Until another event focused their sight.

When the kohanim returned to the Temple and took out that little bit of oil that couldn't possibly last for eight days, and saw it remain aglow night after night, everyone knew this was miraculous. The miracle of the oil reshaped the previous three years in their minds. They then recognized the battles as the miracles that they truly were.

In Our Times

In our own times, we witness an eerie parallel to these events and to the same mistaken interpretation.

For almost 2,000 years the Jewish people -- universally hated and oppressed -- have existed as a lone sheep amongst 70 wolves. Yet we have somehow survived. And now, after long centuries of wandering, we find ourselves back in our homeland.

The survival of our people is the greatest miracle.

Since 1948, the Jewish nation has witnessed profound miracles in the repopulation and development of Israel: world-class hospitals, road, schools; a burgeoning hi-tech industry; vast amounts of high-level Torah study.

But it is the survival of our people that is the greatest miracle.

In 1948, the Jewish population in Israel numbered approximately 650,000, surrounded by some 50 million Arabs. On May 15, 1948, one day after the State of Israel was declared, five Arab nations attacked, each with well-trained armies and air forces, each alone capable of annihilating the small band of Holocaust survivors. At the time there was no Jewish army, navy or air force. Yet, against all odds, we won that war, and against all odds we continued to win war after war -- until now, ironically, the Jews are considered the superpower in the region.

To the average witness to these events, this appears -- not as a demonstration of the hand of God -- but rather as the normal ebb and flow of history.

The lesson of Chanukah is to see behind the veil -- to tune our sight into the true cause of events, and to see that it is God Who runs the world, and God Who fights our wars. Then as now.

December 13, 2009

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Visitor Comments: 14

(13) Yael, December 1, 2012 1:07 PM

Forget the defeats?

Twice the temple was destoyed. Two diaspora and a holocaust whose systematic civilized cruelty is unmatched by any historic precedent. WHAT ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT? This video perpetuate a dangerous belief, a myth that blinds us to the need to take basic human responsibility as humans - before we can claim "special status" as Jews. No we don't get saved every time. We don't. Yes, for some reason we attract a lot of trouble. What can we learn from that?

Penina, December 10, 2012 4:15 PM

Define defeat

Dear Yael, we have never been defeated. Even in the darkest days of our people, G-d is with us. After every loss, G-d blesses us with renewal. Because of G-d's promise to us, we will never be defeated, so long as we remember our promise to Him, never to forget our special status of being a light unto the nations. That is our responsibility as Jewish humans, to care for the rest of humanity, and bring them, and ourselves, closer to G-d. The trouble we attract is when we don't live up to our promise, and the rest of the world senses our unworthiness. Rather than encouraging us to live up to our responsibility, those who resent our message look for such an opportunity to obliterate both us and our holy message. Those fools don't care to see that this is to their own ultimate detriment as well. G-d is patient, He guides and directs us to do our part. G-d will lovingly bring us back. Our trust in Him bids us to patient regarding all we cannot undersand. Our love for Him stirs our impatient yearning for Him to finally reveal His glory and truth to all of humanity, and end all deceit and confusion. With love, happy Chanuka.

(12) Dana Hudes, December 20, 2011 5:28 AM

But there was a Jewish Army

In 1948 there was most definitely a Jewish Army. Indeed, the Revolt was a small bad -- Begin and the Irgun Zvai Leumi -- making guerrilla raids against a mighty Empire (the British) and stealing their weapons. Just as with Chanukkah, other Jews (the Jewish Agency) betrayed them in the years leading up to the war of Independence. By May 1948, the Palmach and the Haganah were an organized force. As for a Jewish Air Force: at the Israel Air Force Museum near Beersheba, you can see some of the planes used in 1948. Precious few they were! No question that the Arab Legion, armed and trained by the British, vastly outnumbered the fledgling IDF. The British very much wanted to keep Palestine. They very much wanted the Jews of Europe not to escape the Holocaust. All this is in Menachem Begin's book _The Revolt_ (the British cabinet position and policies are clearly documented in cabinet meeting minutes of the 1940s declassified in the early 1970s).

(11) Anonymous, December 10, 2011 2:59 AM


As I watched this video I was reminded of how dynamic, loving, and full of grace that our God, the Lord of hosts is. Is God not our loving Father? Is God not the Shepherd of the 'little ones' He watches over? This video overwhelmed me with the love and personal interaction that God not only has for us, but desires to have with us. And I asked myself, Do you respond to The One who created you that we might embrace one another: to really know one another: God and me -and yes, each one of us and God? Thank You. I am sooo looking forward to the remainder of the series. Shalom, Louise

(10) , October 22, 2010 7:42 PM


I heard about the 6 day war, and we didnt learn about it in school yet but that is AMAZING!

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