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ABCs of Sukkot

ABCs of Sukkot

Guidelines for the joyous Jewish outdoor festival of Sukkot.


Following on the heels of the High Holidays is Sukkot, a seven-day festival (8 days in the Diaspora) characterized by the outdoor Sukkah-huts that we sit in, and the "Four Species" of plants waved together each day.

Sukkot is a holiday of immense joy, where we express our complete trust in God, and celebrate our confidence in having received a "good judgment" for the coming year.

Throughout the week of Sukkot, we eat, sleep and socialize in a Sukkah, reminding us that:

  • The Israelites lived in huts during the 40 years of wandering in the desert.
  • God is our ultimate protection – just as He protected the Israelites in the desert with the Clouds of Glory (Exodus 13:21).

The Four Species

On Sukkot, we are commanded to wave the Four Species, each noted for its special beauty:

  • Esrog – the citron, a fragrant fruit with a thick, white rind. It is often picked from the tree while green, and then ripens to a bright yellow.
  • Lulav – the palm branch, which is defined in beauty by having a straight shape and leaves tightly bound.
  • Hadas – the myrtle branch, which has a beautiful plated pattern of three leaves coming out from the same point in the branch.
  • Arava – the willow branch, which should have oblong leaves with a smooth edge.

We bind all the branches together: two willows on the left, one palm branch in the center, and three myrtles on the right. Say the following blessing, then lift them together with the Esrog and shake it in all directions, as a symbol of God's mastery over all Creation.

The Four Species are waved each day (except for Shabbat) in the synagogue, during the recitation of the Hallel prayers of praise. Hallel is followed by Hoshanot, where everyone circles a Torah scroll held on the Bima.

It is a special tradition to "beautify" this mitzvah by getting the nicest species available. At the very least, there are specific requirements to be valid for the mitzvah. Since the details are many and technical, it is not recommended to search through the forest on your own for these species! (Particularly the Esrog, which can easily be confused with a lemon.) Purchase a complete set from a reliable distributor; your local Jewish bookstore should have a "Four Species Set" with a rabbinical seal certifying their validity.

After the holiday, some have the custom to recycle the esrog as a "spice box" for use at Havdalah. In this way, the esrog goes "from one mitzvah to another." Here's how to do it: Buy a package of whole (not ground) cloves. Use an awl to make the holes, then place the cloves painstakingly into each hole. (Yes, this is a great way to keep kids occupied for hours on end.) Keep the cloved esrog in a box, to preserve the beautiful scent of the pungent citrusy etsrog mixing with the sweet 'n spicy cloves. (A plastic container carries a higher risk of mildew.)

The Sukkah Hut

Building your own Sukkah is a great activity to share with your family and friends. The Sukkah must be at least 27x27 inches square. It can be built in a yard, apartment balcony, or even on the back of an elephant.

Your Sukkah needs at least three walls. The walls can be of any material, as long as they are sturdy enough to withstand a normal wind. The walls should be at least 38 inches high (96 cm), but not higher than 30 feet (9.6 m).

You don't have to build walls especially for the Sukkah; you can use the side of a building, or even a hedge of bushes. And if you can find an area that is already enclosed by 2 or 3 walls, then your job will be that much easier!

The roof material (S'chach) must be made from material that grows from the ground, i.e. branches or leaves (but not metal). If you're using unfinished boards, they should preferably not be wider than 5 cm. Also, the material must be presently detached from the ground. This means that nothing can be overhanging your Sukkah – not a tree, a gutter, air-conditioning unit, etc.

The roof must be sufficiently covered so that it gives more shade than sun during the daytime, yet it should be sufficiently open so that the stars are visible through the roof at night. The roof material can only be added after the requisite number of walls are in place.

Since the Sukkah is designated as your "home" for the next seven days, it is customary to decorate it nicely. Many people hang fruits and flowers from the ceiling, and tape posters of Jerusalem and other Jewish themes on the walls.

It is also traditional to "welcome" the seven great leaders of Israel (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moshe, Aaron, Joseph and David) as guests (ushpizin) into one's Sukkah throughout the festival.

More Sukkot Traditions

It is a special mitzvah to rejoice on Sukkot. To this end, the intermediate days of Sukkot are marked by celebrations called Simchat Beit HaSho'eva, commemorating the water libations that were offered during Sukkot in the Holy Temple.

Sukkot is closely connected to "water," as it is the day of universal judgment with regard to the blessings of rain and irrigation for the coming year.

Sukkot is also a time of universal blessing for all peoples; symbolized by the 70 additional offerings brought in the Temple, corresponding to the 70 nations of the world.

The Book of Ecclesiastes, written by King Solomon, is read on Shabbat during Sukkot. The theme of Ecclesiastes is the folly of pursuing temporal pleasures of this world, as opposed to more eternal spiritual pursuits. Indeed, the Sukkah's flimsy construction reminds us that material possessions are transient.

The seventh day of Sukkot is called Hoshana Rabba, which features seven circuits around the bima, with the Four Species in hand. The procession culminates with the beating of the willow branch. Hoshana Rabba is known as the day of the final sealing of judgment which began on Rosh Hashanah. On Hoshana Rabba, some have the custom to read the Book of Deuteronomy and stay up all night studying Torah.

Shmini Atzeret and Simchat Torah

Immediately following Sukkot is one more holiday called Shmini Atzeret, literally the "Eighth Day of Assembly." This is a time to cease the busy activity of the holiday season and simply savor the special relationship with the Almighty before heading out into the long winter season. It is a separate holiday from Sukkot, meaning that the She'hecheyanu blessing is recited, and the obligation to sit in the Sukkah does not apply.

On Shmini Atzeret, Yizkor is recited in the synagogue.

The next day is Simchat Torah, which celebrates the completion and new beginning of the annual Torah reading cycle. In the synagogue, all the Torah scrolls are taken out of the Ark, and the congregation dances "seven circuits" amidst great joy and song. Click here for the text and audio recordings of the most popular Simchat Torah melodies.

In Israel, Simchat Torah is held the same day as Shmini Atzeret.

Wishing you a joyful Sukkot!

September 29, 2009

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Visitor Comments: 10

(8) Yishai, October 11, 2017 2:39 PM

Learn and explore the Jews

Evan thoe I go to a Jewish school it is sometimes hard to learn so I really on this

(7) Diane, September 27, 2015 2:18 AM

Interesting article: I have never had a sukka & won't this year

This is interesting since growing up Reform, only the synagogue ever had a sukkah, and never ate or even sat in one. I always thought it was minor holiday & nothing important. Even when ?I lived in Israel, in Tel Aviv we didn't have a sukkah & it was just a time to go on vacation as the kids weren't in school.

This all sounds great to buid a sukkah if one is young enough and have the skills to actually build it. The pre made ones are so expensive from $500-$1000 & we would have to pay someone to put it together. Not being in a major Jewish community, we have no one to help us who even would have an idea what a sukkah is. (None of our neighbors are Jewish & even have to drive to the nearest synagogue.)

We do have two walls forming a corner of our backyard patio that when we stand on it faces east, so like last year, we will stand out ther once a day and wave the lulav & Etrog that we did purchase & arrived from NYC.
And, we have no way of adding a 3rd wall. At least the patio is open to the sky, but with no chairs even for our patio which we never use even in the summer, forget about sitting much less eating out there.

Hopefully, our synagogue is building a sukkah so my husband & I can at least eat a sandwich in there once during the holiday. We weren't able to do that last year. And, after being totally exhausted after Yom Kippur (3 days to get any energy back), the thought of cooking again is not for me. And, my husband is adamant about NOT attending services, if there will be any. I have never attended services during Sukkot before and didn't even know we were supposed to.
And, it is much too cold lately to spend much time outside anyway here in Maine. We have already begun using space heaters and could rain at any time.

(6) Anonymous, October 6, 2014 2:38 PM


This is so helpful! Will be sharing with friends and family :) Thank you so much for posting this!

(5) Adrian Vink, October 23, 2011 5:15 AM


Thanks for this article of which I found very informative. I partook in this festival for the first time this year in a simplified form as I was very unprepared for it. I found it very refreshing and improving my relationship with HaShem and all those around me in the environment in which I live. Next year we should be better prepared as we will have to enquire as to how and were to obtain the four species, or what we can use as a substitute.

(4) Eliyahu, October 15, 2011 9:08 PM

It's a good reminder

I live in nigeria where these species are not easily available couple with no local jewish bookstore,yet it's a good reminder and it's also good to know what's the right thing to do.Hack sameach.

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