Exposing Auschwitz
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Exposing Auschwitz

Exposing Auschwitz

Rudolf Vrba's report saved 200,000 Hungarian Jews. It could have saved three times that number.

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This month marks the 65th anniversary of a daring escape from Auschwitz, by a teenager who then revealed the truth about the death camp - only to be ignored by the Allied leadership.

In March 1944, the Germans occupied Hungary and began preparing to deport that country's Jews -- numbering approximately 750,0000 -- to Auschwitz. A 19-year-old prisoner named Rudolf Vrba, together with fellow-inmate Alfred Wetzler, decided to do something that almost nobody had ever done before: escape from Auschwitz. They were determined to alert the world about the doom that Hungarian Jews would soon face.

On April 7, Vrba and Wetzler slipped away from their slave labor battalion and hid in a hollowed-out woodpile near the edge of the camp. On the advice of Soviet prisoners of war, the fugitives sprinkled the area with tobacco and gasoline, which confused the German dogs that were used to search for them.

"Were they going to bomb the camp? Was this the end of Auschwitz?"

On their second day in the woodpile, Vrba and Wetzler heard Allied warplanes overhead. "They came closer and closer -- then bombs began to crunch not far away," Vrba later recalled in his searing memoir I Cannot Forgive. "Our pulses quickened. Were they going to bomb the camp? Was the secret out?... Was this the end of Auschwitz?"

The Allied planes were actually bombing German oil factories in and around the Auschwitz complex. The idea of bombing the death camp had not yet been proposed to the Allied leadership, and details such as the location of the gas chambers and crematoria were not yet known to the Allied war command. But that was about to change.

On April 10, in the dead of night, Vrba and Wetzler emerged from the woodpile and began an 11-day, 80-mile trek to Slovakia. There they met with Jewish leaders and dictated a 30-page report that came to be known as the "Auschwitz Protocols." It included details of the mass-murder process, maps pinpointing the gas chambers and crematoria and warnings of the impending slaughter of Hungary's Jews.

"One million Hungarian [Jews] are going to die," Vrba told them. "Auschwitz is ready for them. But if you tell them now, they will rebel. They will never go to the ovens."

A copy of the report was given to Rudolf Kastner, a Budapest Jewish leader. Instead of publicizing the information, Kastner negotiated a deal that involved bribing the Germans to permit a train with 1,684 of his relatives, friends and Hungarian Jewish leaders to leave the country. Kastner's action became the centerpiece of a controversial trial in Israel after the war.

Another copy of Vrba's Auschwitz Protocols was given to Rabbi Michoel Dov Weissmandl, a rescue activist in Bratislava, who then wrote the first known appeal for the use of Allied air power to disrupt the mass murder. Weissmandl's plea to the Allies to bomb the railroad lines between Hungary and Auschwitz reached the Roosevelt administration in June.

McCloy's position was based on the policy that no military resources should be allocated for "rescuing victims of enemy oppression."

Assistant secretary of war John McCloy responded that the request was "impracticable" because it would require "diversion of considerable air support essential to the success of our forces now engaged in decisive operations." He also claimed the War Department's position was based on "a study" of the issue. But no evidence of such a study has ever been found by researchers. In reality, McCloy's position was based on the War Department's standing policy that no military resources should be allocated for "rescuing victims of enemy oppression."

Vrba's report convinced the Jewish Agency leadership in Palestine to change its position on bombing. Agency leaders initially opposed bombing Auschwitz because they believed it was a labor camp, not a death camp. But after receiving the Auschwitz Protocols in June, agency officials lobbied British, American and Soviet officials to bomb the camp or the railways leading to it. Their requests were rebuffed.

Most important, a condensed version of the Auschwitz Protocols reached the US government's War Refugee Board in June. It helped galvanize the board to mobilize international pressure on Hungary to halt the deportations to Auschwitz. Although that effort came too late for the more than 400,000 Hungarian Jews who had been shipped to their doom, it did spare the 200,000-plus who were still alive in Budapest.

The full version of the Vrba report was actually held up in Switzerland for three months by US diplomats who regarded it as low priority. And when the report finally reached Washington in October, the Office of War Information opposed distributing it; OWI director Elmer Davis claimed the report was actually part of a Nazi conspiracy to "create contempt for the [Jewish] inmates" by showing that the Jews were not resisting their killers.

Fortunately, Davis and his cockamamie theories were too late to blunt the impact of the Auschwitz Protocols. The Hungarian deportations had been stopped, and Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler had played a significant role in bringing that about.

Published: April 20, 2009


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Visitor Comments: 16

(16) Anonymous, May 1, 2011 11:42 AM

Kastner

Very interesting article. I am quoting from the article on Kastner from wikepedia: Kastner's critics allege that he promised the SS not to warn Hungarian Jews in order not to jeopardize negotiations to save the Jews who escaped on the Kastner train. In 1960 an interview with Eichmann made by the Dutch Nazi journalist Willem Sassen in Argentina was published in Life Magazine. In the interview Eichmann said that Kastner "agreed to help keep the Jews from resisting deportation — and even keep order in the collection camps — if I would close my eyes and let a few hundred or a few thousand young Jews emigrate to Palestine. It was a good bargain." [26] Further, Rudolf Vrba wrote, "Kastner paid for those 1,684 lives with his silence."

(15) N Kahana, June 17, 2009 4:50 PM

The US hasn't learned

While this is definitely a terrible tragedy that everyone ignored the Auschwitz Protocols and the report given by Dr. Vrba. It is something that still happens today. What does the US do about victims of war in other countries these days? Pretty much the same, they ignore unfortunately that just isnt't their top priority.

(14) Vivienne, May 6, 2009 9:55 AM

To Sara Rosenberg - Read Perfidy

For a true account of Rudolph Kastner's complex persona, read Perfidy by Ben Hecht. Kastner did deliberately mislead the masses with regard to information about the true destination of the deportations. This was in keeping with a viewpoint espoused by some Zionists, that were intent on saving Zionist leaders while abandoning the masses to their fate. In fact, Kastner's testimony in court so embarrassed the Israeli government, that his assasination with their involvement was inevitable. My great-grandparents perished at Auschwitz with their youngest child, never believing what would come at the end of the train rides. Perhaps with knowledge they would not have boarded those trains so passively. Perhaps more would have jumped the trains...perhaps.....

(13) Anonymous, April 23, 2009 11:40 PM

ALL TIME HORIFIC

IIS ALWAYS VERY INTRIGUING EVERYTHING ABOUT HOLOCAUST VICTIMSAND THIS BARBARIC HISTORY EPISODE.HUMANKIND MUST LEARN FROM THIS UNFORTUNATE NEGLIGENCE.A STRATEGY MUST TAKE A SHAPE TO AVOID SUCH PITFALLS.

(12) Sora Rosenberg, April 23, 2009 7:43 PM

Rudolf Katzner

I highly recommend reading Kasztner’s Train by Ann Porter. It is a fascinating book. I think the section in the article relating to Kasztner needs clarification. I pulled some info from wikipedia: Although Kastner did not make the report public, he did pass it on to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry official who ran a resistance group who in turn passed it on to a Protestant missionary organization who translated the report into Hungarian and prepared six copies. A copy was sent to the Vatican and the report is known to have reached the British and U.S. governments by mid-June 1944. Kastner's agreement over the train was part of a much larger rescue effort involving negotiations to save all Hungarian Jews by stopping the deportations. Also, he could not have saved Jews by warning them anyway. Ladislaus Löb argues, "with no access to the media and limited opportunities to travel, under constant observation by German and Hungarian secret police, he could hardly have raised the alarm in an effective way" and even if he had, the Jews, "surrounded by enemies, stripped of their rights and possessions, having neither the arms nor the experience", were unable to organize either resistance or mass escapes According to some sources, many of the Jews who were saved were Kastner's relatives, rich Hungarian Jews who subsidized those on the train who couldn't pay, real personal friends of Kastner as well as "community and Zionist leaders." Actually the passengers included hundreds of children, many of them orphans, as well as hundreds of ordinary people such as students, workmen, teachers and nurse.

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