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Rebbetzin Jungreis on the Holocaust

Rebbetzin Jungreis on the Holocaust

As the new Yad Vashem museum opens, a survivor of Bergen-Belsen speaks of Jewish courage, resistance and triumph.


The diminutive frame of Rebbetzin Esther Jungreis belies her stature as a Jewish juggernaut. Jungreis and her extended family were deported from Hungary to Bergen-Belsen in the waning days of World War II. Prior to the Holocaust, 85 rabbis in Hungary bore the name Jungreis. Only 10 survived.

Jungreis was motivated to replace the loss, and in 1973 she founded the Hineni organization to combat spiritual erosion in American Jewry. Today her weekly Torah class in Manhattan draws crowds of 1,500 people. She is the author of numerous books, including The Committed Life and The Committed Marriage (HarperCollins), and she delivered the closing benediction at the 2004 Republican National Convention.

This month, Jungreis was in Israel, having been chosen by President Bush as one of seven people to represent the U.S. at the inauguration of Yad Vashem’s state-of-the-art $56 million Holocaust museum. Jungreis spoke to in Jerusalem. You arrived at Bergen-Belsen as a seven-year-old child. What gave you the strength to survive?

Jungreis: When I stood for roll call every morning, freezing and without food, my head shaved because of lice, and a number tattooed on my arm, I knew that my people would survive. I could not be sure whether I myself would survive, but I knew that the Jewish people would survive. What gave you this confidence?

Jungreis: My father was a great rabbi, and in the blackness of the camp he always assured me that the miracle of Jewish survival would happen once again.

In every generation, someone stands up to annihilate us, as we say at the Passover Seder. And it always looks as if we won’t make it. In ancient Egypt, it looked like the Jews would be gone. In ancient Persia, the Purim story, it looked like Haman would have his way and annihilate us. In ancient Rome, as millions of our people were slaughtered along with the burning of our Holy Temple, it looked like the Jewish people had reached the end.

But these so-called great empires disappeared. And against all odds, we are still here. Not just surviving, but thriving. It is a miracle. In Bergen-Belsen, you witnessed the most horrible inhumanities. How were you able to maintain a sense of dignity?

Jungreis: My faith in God and Torah helped lift me above the horror. Every day, I said, ‘Thank God that I am Jew, and that I am not one of the evil beasts perpetrating this unspeakable terror.’ What does the Holocaust teach us about mankind?

Jungreis: The Holocaust demonstrated the fallacy of a Godless world. Germany was the most cultured, enlightened, sophisticated and well-educated society of its day. And who perpetrated this horrific evil? Not illiterates. It was Germany’s elite -- physicians, scientists, attorneys.

King David said, ‘The beginning of all wisdom is respect for God.’ Without that, there is nothing. The collapse of the Nazi ideal is a triumph of the Jewish ideal. From a spiritual perspective, what do we learn from the Holocaust?

Jungreis: This is a very painful question, and very difficult for people to accept. We are a nation that has a special covenant with God, to bring his message to the world. If we neglect that mission, then Amalek -- the embodiment of Godlessness and evil -- comes to remind us who we are.

So ultimately the Holocaust is to inspire Jews. The sages say that Haman, who was from the family of Amalek, did more to bring the Jewish people close to God than even the Jewish prophets were able to do. I imagine some people are shocked to hear the idea of the Holocaust inspiring Jews.

Jungreis: Of course it can’t be compared to the Purim story, because our generation does not have an Esther and a Mordechai to galvanize the people. But we have certainly seen a Jewish awakening, with tens of thousands of young people taking a deeper look at Torah and mitzvot.

The Holocaust compelled people to confront their Jewishness. After such an unspeakable calamity, every Jew must look inside and consider: Hitler tried to exterminate my people. Will I, through apathy and indifference, become a partner to Hitler? Or will my life convey a testimony to the glory of the Jewish people?

My sense is that the thriving of Torah in Israel and America was in large part born through the tragedy of Auschwitz. The Jewish people made a conscience effort to rebuild out of the ashes. Without that necessity, American Jewry might have withered. It is painful to consider. But every birth is painful.

The sun sets, and the sun rises. It is dichotomous, but that is the history of our nation. There are more than 250 Holocaust museums and memorials worldwide. What makes Yad Vashem so unique?

Jungreis: A Holocaust museum in any other part of the world is a memorial to the six million. But in Jerusalem it is a testament to our coming home, the fulfillment of prophecy that the Jewish people will return to the Land of Israel. Is there one moment that galvanized this message for you?

Jungreis: In Bergen Belsen, before Rosh Hashana, my father and other rabbis tried to obtain a shofar. And for the price of 300 cigarettes, they succeeded. It was a miracle because 300 cigarettes in the camp was like billions of dollars. So my father made a blessing and blew the shofar. Of course the Germans came and beat us mercilessly, but it was all worth it because this is the epitome of Jewish courage, Jewish resistance, Jewish triumph.

Then a few years ago I was giving a lecture in Israel, and I told this story about the shofar. A woman in the audience stood up, and started to cry. She said, ‘When that shofar blew, I was in the adjacent camp. The shofar was later smuggled into our camp, and my father blew the shofar for us, too. And I have that shofar in my possession.’ So right then she went home and brought back the shofar. And there we were, the two of us, in our holy Land of Israel, crying, holding the shofar.

If Hitler would have known that Israel’s thriving Torah community would emerge from the ashes of the Holocaust, he would have never made the Holocaust.

That’s why I believe the term ‘Holocaust survivor’ is erroneous. The Jewish people did not merely ‘survive’ the Holocaust. We triumphed over it. We rebuilt the spiritual core of our people. Am Yisrael Chai. It is truly a miracle.


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Visitor Comments: 23

(23) John, April 18, 2007 1:37 PM

Very old post of mine


But wanted to say I really admire the Rebbetzin! I've just bought a second book of the Rebbetzin and I recently spoke Rebbetzin through email, I think the Rebbetzin is great and an inspiring woman! B"H


(22) Carol Notestein, January 18, 2006 12:00 AM

Jewish faith gave them the courage and grace necessary to remind the world that they could never be totally destroyed.

It is hard to understand how anyone could carry out the barbaric cruelties that became daily events, not only in the camps, but throughout the towns and cities of so many countries. The visciousness of those who tried to eliminate an entire people through torture, starvation, and immeasurable cruelty is even more devastating when we realize that those who carried out the orders or acted on their own to humiliate and destroy were "ordinary citizens" not simply a few psychotic persons with great power. Hitler did everything he could to bring about the total annihilation of those he viewed as less worthy of life, but it was the Jewish people who were his primary target. The blowing of the Shofar, a seemingly small but symbolic act, made a louder, stronger, more meaningful statement about the dignity and faith of a people than all the noise and viscious attacks made by the Nazis. It shouted to all who heard it, "We are still here, we still believe, and we will not only survive, but like the plants and trees that push up through the ashes after a forest fire, we will again be a vital, thriving and prosperous nation whose presence and unconquerable spirit will positively impact the world."

(21) Anonymous, May 20, 2005 12:00 AM

How do you sleep at night with out remembering all the evial things that happend to you and your family

I can not even imagain what those people did to you and all the other jews. I think you are a very strong woman to have been able to live threw it and i think you are and even stronger woman for not holding a grouge against those who dont deserve the hardships that you had to go threw.

(20) Eugene, May 2, 2005 12:00 AM

Thanks for sharing !

Thanks to all those who have lived the " Holocaust " and have acccepted to share this with us who escaped. We have to be remembered that no matter what happens, and History has proven this, Israel's children can survive.
Thanks to the Most High - Am Israel Chai ! Shalom u levrakha. Eugene

(19) Volvi, May 2, 2005 12:00 AM

More Paralels

I read the article and was moved by the Rebbetzen's words. However like a few other comments made here by others I have to offer an alternative view to why the Shoah happened. Hardly to strengthen Yiddishkeit for most know Yiddishkeit was thriving in Eastern pre war Europe. Aside the assimilated community within Germany, from which a whole lesson may be learned from to which I intend to touch upon later.

Why did the Shoah happen? I cannot claim to know Hashem and his workings but can only offer what I see may possibly be the reasons. "Kibbutz Galuyot" - Ingathering of the exiles, was prophecised some two thousand years ago. How could it come about? Whilst in the late 1800's the movement of Jews electing to go up to Jerusalem ironically came mostly from the secular Zionists of Jewery. Be they from Hashomeir Hatzair etc. Orthodox Jewery rarely if ever made such a move. They repeatedly said "Ven Mashiach vet kummen - den mir alle vet gein tzi Eretz Yisroel" Translated, "When Mashiach will come, then we shall all go to Eretz Yisroel" This became a 'mantra' amongst Jews for generations. Like at the Seder table "L'Shono Haboh B'Yerushalyim" Next year in Jerusalem. Why next year? Why not go this year if one yearns for it so? But rather Yiddishkeit evolved in a 'cultural system' where true faith may have been somewhat lacking. The pre war Jew left it all in the hands of God to do or not to do. Whilst Emunah (faith) in Hashem is a requisite in Yiddishkeit, 'M'asit' (action) was lacking. Hashem works through us, we cannot sit back and just wait for Hashem to do all the work for us. Bottom line pre war Jewery of eastern Europe were so entrenched and felt safe in Golus (Diaspora). There was no motivation to move or seek, desire to live in Eretz Hakodesh as they so oftenly prayed for. 'Life was good' Move to 'Palestine' where we Jews have to fight and perhaps die for our land? No Thanks, I will wait for mashiach here in my Shtetel and every year sing L'Shono Haboh B'Yerushalyim whist my secular brothers can do all the fighting and dying. God says "My ways are not your ways". So you think your safe there in Europe? So you think paying me 'lip service' will do? Let me show you. If I have to bring about Kibbutz Galuyot (ingathering) the hard way - so be it.

Beware my fellow Jews for the same lesson may yet have to be repeated. Absurd! you say? So you think your still safe in Europe? Or you American Jews especially no doubt you have little desire to move from the comforts of your existence. How many of you have assimilated and lost your identity? Can you not compare yourselves with the Jews of Germany? They too felt safe. They too served in theyre hosts army and were decorated soldiers in WW1. They too assimilated and became as German as theyre neighbour. Don't you consider yourself as American as your neighbour? Beware my brothers and sisters. For we Jews have had every easy opportunity to move to Israel in over the last 50 years. But many have chosen not too. Do you not see the same pattern? Do you not think its possible that all Jews in New York say may God forbid be wiped out in a flash, a literal flash. Do you not know New York is the primary target for facist Islamists? Who think its the financial hub of America and by destroying that city they have brought America down. And yet even this terrible act maybe retribution by Hashem for feeling satisfied in your Golus. beware my fellow Yidden. Be not consoled by re-assurances of your Rabbonim. The pre war Kehillos also asked their Rabbonim and were all told to stay put - Hakodosh Baruch hu vet helffen. Only they too went with theyre flock into the gas chambers.

I realise that much of what I have said may be hard to digeste. But thats the way I see it, hopefully I am wrong and know not Gods ways. Rebbitzen - I am second generation holcaust 'survivor' My family came from Kecskemet Hungary of whom very few survived.

B'Shanah Haze B'Yerushalyim


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