History Crash Course #6: Isaac and His Sons

History repeats: The groove that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob carve will be for their descendants.

History Crash Course #7: Joseph

Joseph demonstrates a classic pattern: The Jew arrives impoverished, works hard, and rises to the top.

History Crash Course #8: Reunion

To remedy the family animosity, Joseph sets the stage for a great test.

History Crash Course #10: Ten Plagues

With the Ten Plagues, the laws of nature are turned upside down to free the Jews.

History Crash Course #11: Mount Sinai

The encounter between God and the Jews at Mount Sinai was a totally unique event in all of human history.

History Crash Course #12: The Golden Calf

Only a tiny portion of Jews participate in worshiping the golden calf. So why blame the whole nation?

History Crash Course #13: The Tragedy of the Spies

Every major disaster in Jewish history is connected to the 9th of Av. It all began with the 12 spies.

History Crash Course #15: The Time of the Judges

Jewish guidance came from the "judges," who were both warriors and prophets.

History Crash Course #16: King Saul

King Saul was a great man who committed one terrible mistake, dooming his reign from the start.

History Crash Course #17: David: Shepherd & Warrior

Still too young to fight in the army, David becomes Israel's champion when he slays Goliath.

History Crash Course #18: David: The King

King David established Jerusalem as Israel's capital over 3,000 years ago.

History Crash Course #19: King Solomon

King Solomon, the wisest of all men, built the Temple in Jerusalem and reigned over Israel's golden age.

History Crash Course #20: A Divided Nation

The 10 northern tribes secede, splitting Israel in two.

History Crash Course #21: Assyrian Conquest

The Assyrians conquer northern Israel and vanquish the nation with exile.

History Crash Course #22: The End of Israel

The Kingdom of Judah lasts another of 134 years before it falls.

History Crash Course #23: Babylonian Exile

The Babylonians think God has abandoned the Jews and celebrate. But they have a surprise coming.

History Crash Course #24: Purim in Persia

A feast celebrating God's abandonment of Israel puts into motion Haman's plot to annihilate the Jews.

History Crash Course #25: The Second Temple

The Holy Temple is rebuilt, but is not the same with the Ark of the Covenant missing.

History Crash Course #26: The Great Assembly

Extraordinary sages define the essence of Judaism for the Jews of Israel and the Diaspora.

History Crash Course #27: The Greek Empire

To the Greeks, what was beautiful was holy; to the Jews, what was holy was beautiful. These views were bound to clash.

History Crash Course #28: Greek Persecution

Terror reigned -- women were killed with babies tied around their necks.

History Crash Course #29: Revolt of the Maccabees

The Jewish revolt against the Greeks sets a precedent as the world's first religious war.

History Crash Course #30: The Romans

Jewish tradition maintains the Romans were descendants of Esau, the bloodthirsty brother of Jacob.

History Crash Course #31: Herod the Great

A madman who murdered his own family and many rabbis, Herod was also the greatest builder in Jewish history.

History Crash Course #32: Hillel and Shammai

In a time when many things were going wrong for the Jews, the sages Hillel and Shammai defined what was going right.

History Crash Course #33: The Great Revolt

In a seemingly suicidal move, the Jews take on the mighty Romans.

History Crash Course #34: War For Jerusalem

The Jewish nation fights to save its spiritual center.

History Crash Course #35: Destruction of the Temple

On the saddest day in the Jewish calendar, the 9th of Av, the Temple burns to the ground.

History Crash Course #37: Bar Kochba Revolt

Despite the disastrous results of the Great Revolt, the Jews revolt yet again.

History Crash Course #38: Exile

The Romans sought to extinguish Jewish presence in Jerusalem by renaming Israel to Palestine.

History Crash Course #39: The Talmud

In a time of chaos, the sages do the unprecedented and write down the Oral Law.

History Crash Course #40: Seeds of Christianity

At a time of cruel oppression, splinter sects spring up in belief that the apocalypse is at hand.

History Crash Course #41: From Paul to Constantine

Early Christianity attracted those unwilling to take on all of Judaism's precepts.

History Crash Course #42: Rise of Islam

Mohammed reacted with anger when Jews refused to recognize him as the last of the prophets.

History Crash Course #43: The Jews of Babylon

The oldest and most stable of Jewish communities was spared the ravages of holy warriors.

History Crash Course #44: The Jews of Spain

Spain was the Medieval golden land of opportunity for Jews.

History Crash Course #45: The Crusades

The Crusaders came to liberate the Holy Land from the "infidels" - and woe to any Jew who stood in their way.

History Crash Course #46: Blood Libel

Christian accusations leveled against the Jews were extreme and irrational.

History Crash Course #47: The Black Death

The Europeans didn't know what caused the bubonic plague, but had no trouble blaming the Jews.

History Crash Course #48: The Inquisition

The Inquisition sought to expose Jews who converted to Christianity but were still secretly Jewish.

History Crash Course #49: The Jews of Poland

King Boleslav of Poland invited the Jews, granting them unprecedented rights and privileges.

History Crash Course #50: Reformation and the Jews

The Reformation exposed the corruption of the Church. For the Jews it meant more bad news.

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