History Crash Course #51: The Kabbalists

In the 16th century, the Israeli mountaintop town of Tzfat became the center of Jewish mysticism.

History Crash Course #52: The Hassidic Movement

Initially a movement largely of the poor and uneducated, Hassidism emphasized spirituality in everyday life.

History Crash Course #53: The Enlightenment

The Age of Reason gave Jews civil rights, but its emphasis on a Godless society was bound to backfire.

History Crash Course #54: The Reform Movement

Germans emphasized their loyalty to the "fatherland" in order to be accepted in mainstream society.

History Crash Course #55: Jews and the Founding of America

The amazing story of Jewish influence on the founding fathers of American democracy.

History Crash Course #56: Pale of Settlement

This area of Russia where Jews were most oppressed gave rise to amazing achievements.

History Crash Course #57: The Czars and the Jews

Government-organized pogroms against the Jews deflected attention from the corrupt regime.

History Crash Course #58: Jewish Life in America

Jews gained untold riches in America, at the cost of their heritage and spirituality.

History Crash Course #59: The Face of Anti-Semitism

Even in such civilized nations as France and the United States, anti-Semitism never died out.

History Crash Course #60: The Holocaust

While Nazi Germany systematically rounded up and executed Jews, the world closed its eyes and its doors.

History Crash Course #61: The Final Solution

Hitler implemented his goal to eliminate all Jews from the planet.

History Crash Course #62: Return to the Land of Israel

The re-birth of Israel is an unprecedented phenomenon in human history.

History Crash Course #63: Modern Zionism

Herzl launched the political framework for the modern State of Israel.

History Crash Course #64: The British Mandate

The British promised to create a Jewish state, but served their own Arab-linked interests as millions died in the Holocaust.

History Crash Course #65: The State of Israel

After the British turned away Holocaust survivors from Israel, the UN voted to partition the land.

History Crash Course #66: War

Since its founding in 1948, Israel has been in a constant state of war, and yet has achieved great economic success.

History Crash Course #67: The Miracle of Jewish History

In the final analysis, Jewish history makes no rational sense.

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