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Cardinal O’Connor Was a Jew
Chief Editor's Blog

Cardinal O’Connor Was a Jew

Does it really matter?


So it turns out the Cardinal John Joseph O’Connor, the Catholic Church’s top official in New York for 16 years until his death in 2000, was a Jew.

Mary O’Connor Ward, the cardinal’s 87-year-old sister, recently discovered that their mother was Jewish, a daughter of an Orthodox rabbi, while digging into her genealogical roots. Their Prussian-born maternal grandparents were Gustave Gumpel and Tina Ruben, who are buried in a Jewish cemetery in Fairfeld, Conn.

According to the New York Times, Gustave Gumpel was the rabbi of B’nai Israel and a butcher in the late 1800s. His first wife died in 1890, and his second wife, Tina, died 10 years after coming to the United States, leaving Rabbi Gumpel to raise a large blended family on his own. Cardinal O’Connor’s mother, (Deborah on her 1887 birth certificate, Dora in the 1900 census, and Dorothy when she converted to Catholicism in 1908) was a toddler when her mother died. She was raised by two half sisters in difficult circumstances and fled from home as soon as she came of age, never to come back. Apparently two other sisters also left the family and their Jewish heritage behind.

My gut reaction to reading about Cardinal O’Connor’s Jewish roots was one of sadness (different than the JTA who wrote, “Is this really a big deal? Let’s say the cardinal really was Jewish. It runs in the family, because so was his boss”). This is not a “cool” story. It's a human tragedy: a young girl, bereft of her mother, flees from her home. And it’s a Jewish tragedy: a Jewish girl abandons her religion and people.

Cardinal O’Connor was a powerful leader who was a staunch defender of the Jewish people. He spoke often about what he had seen at Dachau as a Navy chaplain, fought for Soviet Jewry, and played a role in the Vatican’s recognition of Israel. Upon his death the New York Times wrote that he was a “towering presence, a leader whose views and personality were forcefully injected into the great civic debates of his time, a man who considered himself a conciliator, but who never hesitated to be a combatant."

Imagine what he would have accomplished for the Jewish people if his mother would have remained committed to Judaism and given her son a strong Jewish education.

Just imagine what the Cardinal would have accomplished for the Jewish people if his mother would have remained committed to Judaism and given her son, Yochanan Yosef, a strong Jewish education. Of course we can’t judge his mother, but we can mourn the loss to the Jewish nation. The reality of assimilation isn’t fully expressed through statistics alone. Every Jew is an entire world. The toll of assimilation is more acutely felt when you think about the mindboggling loss of Jewish individuals, families and future descendants who could have made enormous contributions to the Jewish people.

Link in the Chain

The same day I read about Mary O’Connor’s discovery through genealogy of her family’s Jewish lineage I received a file from my wife’s cousin that conveys the thorough research into my wife’s grandmother’s family tree. It turns out that even though she herself wasn’t especially religious, she was a direct descendant of some of the greatest rabbinic figures in the last 1000 years. Rashi, the foremost commentator on the Chumash and Talmud, is her 25th great grandfather. The Shach, Rabbi Shabtai HaCohen, and the Rema, Rabbi Moshe Isserles, are her 11th great grandfathers. The list includes a wide range of European Jewish leaders, judges, and authors since the Middle Ages. We were amazed. Who knew?

Chances are very likely that if any Jew today would trace their direct lineage back 25 generations they would also discover that they are descendants of some of the greatest leading scholars and Jewish leaders in Jewish history.

What difference does it make? Two things strike me.

One, it makes the chain of Jewish history far more vivid when I see plotted out on paper the ancestral sequence linking my wife’s grandmother, who died this year, directly to Rashi. I am not just a Jew living in the present in a vacuum; I am part of dynamic chain of transmission that stretches a few thousand years, and I am the present link in the chain.

And knowing the illustriousness of my family’s personal lineage gives me a greater sense of the privilege and responsibility to carry that legacy forward.

I wonder if things would have been different if Cardinal O’Connor had discovered as a young child that he was a direct descendant of the Vilna Gaon, Rashi or King David.

June 14, 2014

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The opinions expressed in the comment section are the personal views of the commenters. Comments are moderated, so please keep it civil.

Visitor Comments: 46

(39) Larry Cohen, February 8, 2015 4:30 PM

I am an inter-married Jew.

I am an intermarried Jew. And you might think I would
not like the Rabbis strong feelings against intermarriage
but I am always glad to read them and I too
worry about the survival of the Jewish
Many of us intermarried jews
are very pro-Israel.
But I must state though , I do not see the pro-Israel
grounding in my children and I must say the Rabbi
is correct : This was lost in intermarriage in my family.

I do not walk around filled with guilt because I will now do what I can , but the Rabbi is very correct , Jewish
culture can easily disappear in a matter of a few years
through intermarriage.

Larry Cohen

(38) Emile Freedman, July 9, 2014 1:22 AM

Three Cheers for O'Connor

We've had a plethora of our Jewish brothers in positions of great power throughout the Roman church now for centuries, Loyola being but one notable example. I do find it humorous that this cardinal, with his Irish 'O'Connor' surname, was assumed by the rabble of the Catholic faith to be catholic like them. Their Jesus taught them 'know them by their acts' but, as is often the case, the Catholics did not pay attention to this truism.

So, does it matter? It surely matters in that O'Connor was, like cardinal Bea and many untold others, able to refresh the Roman church's ancient beliefs and traditions. Thanks to men like O'Connor, the church became properly aligned with Judaic thought and Talmudic teachings and thus the ugly stain of Anti-Semitism that wholly pervaded the church was gradually cleansed. It is because of men like O'Connor that we now witness a pope who had the vision and moral certainty to install a Menorah and other Jewish symbols in the cathedral in Buenos Aires. Through such actions the Roman church has gradually adopted Judeo-Christianity which has supplanted the anti-semitic teachings of the traditional church.

When one steps back and views the catholic church's traditions and beliefs and universal teachings as they appeared even 60 years ago, and then views the church in its present state, one can see the remarkable success many, like O'Connor, have had in bringing that church up to date.

Unfortunately some of its followers are still frothing at the mouth, but generally they are few and far between.

(37) Yael, June 24, 2014 10:08 PM

kind of agree with the JTA

It's only a tragedy if you had it and then lost it. The cardinal never had it, he only had the potential. He didn't know any Jewish relatives except his own mother and sister, and at that point Judaism was irrelevant, as by then the family was fully immersed in Catholicism. The only tragedy I see is the vast separation between the Catholic world and the Jewish world, which makes it basically impossible for a Catholic who happens to be a Jew to make Judaism relevant in his life, even if he knows about it. Other than that, like the JTA said, is this really a big deal? There are thousands of Jews amongst the hundreds of millions of Catholics in the world, always have been, and if the brisk business done by Aish and the like is any indication, the Jewish world is not suffering from the loss. Wish them well and forget about it, unless and until they personally come to you for training in Judaism.

(36) Emil Friedman, June 20, 2014 2:21 PM

There's little need to trace lineage.

Imagine tracing your lineage back 25 generations. There are two to the 25th power different chains of father's mother's mother's father's mother's, etc to trace. 2^25 is greater than 33 milliion. I don't need genealogy records to be virtually certain that someone great was my ancestor and that someone evil was also my ancestor. I just need 11th grade math.

(35) freida, June 19, 2014 10:51 AM

Yochanan Yosef?

Please explain-did mom arrange a Bris Milah? Very tragic story, the fouth cardinal sin, you might say. (It's not funny.) Sorry he lies interred, not with his People.

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