click here to jump to start of article
  • Torah Reading: Naso
Join Our Newsletter

Get latest articles and videos with Jewish inspiration and insights​

Bo(Exodus 10:1-13:16)

Pharaoh Arose

The final plague, the killing of the first-born Egyptians, strikes every home in Egypt. Pharaoh awakes in panic and finally is brought to his knees as he agrees to free the Jews. We read the following cryptic Rashi-comment. It is a subtle one-word comment that highlights the drama of the text.

Exodus 12:30

"And Pharaoh arose at night, he and all his servants, and all of Egypt. And there was a great outcry in Egypt for there was no home in which there was no dead."



And Pharaoh arose - RASHI: From his bed.

You must have a question here!

Your Question:



A Question: At first glance this looks like a strange comment. On the one hand, this is such a mundane piece of information (that Pharaoh got up from his bed; after all, it was the middle of the night - where else would he be?!), we would ask: Why does Rashi trouble himself to tell us this?

A second question would be: What difference does it make?

We note that this is a very brief comment. It looks like a Type II comment, meaning that its purpose is to help us clarify matters. We won't ask "What's bothering Rashi?" Rather, we'd ask : "What is Rashi clarifying?"

Your answer:



An Answer: Here is a subtle point. The word "Vayakam" in Hebrew literally means "and he rose up," but frequently it is used to indicate the beginning of another action. As in Genesis 4:8, where it says: "And Cain rose up against Abel his brother and killed him." Or in Exodus 2:17 when Moses meets Yisro's daughters at the well, it says: "And Moses rose up and saved them etc." In these, and many similar cases, the word "Vayakam" does not mean to rise up to a standing position, but rather to prepare to take further action.

How does Rashi know that in our verse the word is to be taken literally, actually to rise up?

Your Answer:



An Answer: Rashi points out that here the word is to be taken literally, i.e. that Pharaoh actually, physically, arose. Rashi, being sensitive to this use of the word, realizes that when the word "Vayakam" is not followed by another verb (as in the case of Abel, "and he killed him"), he then draws his deduction that here it means literally to stand up. Thus his brief comment.

From where did he arise? From his bed, naturally.

What about our second question: What difference does all this make? Why must Rashi, and the Torah, tell us this trivial fact?

Your Answer:



An Answer: The sense one gets when one pictures Pharaoh jumping out of his warm, secure, king-size bed in the middle of the night, is one of all-consuming panic and confusion. See the other Rashi-comments on this verse and we see clearly that Pharaoh was terror stricken by the outcry from all these sudden deaths. The Torah, with Rashi's help, quietly conveys this message by mentioning that "Pharaoh arose from his bed at night..."

While literary style is not the Torah's purpose, it certainly makes use of style in a most sophisticated way to convey its messages.


Shabbat Shalom,
Avigdor Bonchek

January 8, 2005

Give Tzedakah! Help create inspiring
articles, videos and blogs featuring timeless Jewish wisdom.

Visitor Comments: 2

(2) jay c, January 28, 2012 4:38 PM

how could he sleep?

I am astonished that Pharaoh could sleep after all that had transpired and the dire threat to his son. How hard his heart must have been to refuse to believe and act on his son's behalf!

(1) Anonymous, January 7, 2011 11:31 PM

an exclamation point

I would think this illustrates G-d's intentions for the miracles in that one would have expected Pharoh to "arise" and then follow with an action; however, the very fact that no action was (or could be) taken reveals that Pharoh was powerless-- an act of defeat

Submit Your Comment:

  • Display my name?

  • Your email address is kept private. Our editor needs it in case we have a question about your comment.

  • * required field 2000
Submit Comment