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Vayechi(Genesis 47:28-50:26)

Through You They Bless

The final parsha in the book of Genesis contains Jacob's blessings to his twelve sons. He saves a special place for his beloved son, Joseph. He has a special blessing for him and for his sons, Ephraim and Menasheh. His blessing is well known but its meaning is far from clear.

Genesis 48:20

"And he (Jacob) blessed them (Ephraim and Menasheh) on that day saying: 'Through you (singular) shall the People of Israel bless, saying: May God make you as Ephraim and Menasheh.' And he placed Ephraim before Menasheh."



Through you shall the People of Israel bless - RASHI: When one comes to bless his children, he will bless them with their blessing. And a person will say to his son, "May God make you as Ephraim and Menasheh."

In many homes it is customary for the father to bless his children on Friday evening with these words: "May God make you as Ephraim and Menasheh." It would seem to be based on this Rashi.

There are several questions that come to mind as one looks at this verse and its Rashi-comment.

Your Questions:



Rashi says, "When one comes to bless his children he will bless them with their blessing." What does he mean with their blessing? He was to bless them with the words, "May God make you as Ephraim and Menasheh." Is that their blessing? That is not their blessing. Those words seem to mean your son should grow up to be like Ephraim and Menasheh. It's your son's blessing, not Ephraim and Menasheh's blessing. Why then does Rashi say "bless them with their blessing"?

A Question on the Verse: It says "He blessed them." Where does this verse contain their blessing? The verse speaks of "The People of Israel's" blessing, not Ephraim and Menasheh's.

To complicate matters even more, look above at verse 15. There it says: "And he blessed Joseph and he said..." Read the rest of that verse and you won't find any blessing for Joseph. It says rather "[may] He bless the lads," etc.

It seems like a lot of confusion.

Our Final Question: What's bothering Rashi that prompted this comment?

Hint: See the plural-singular usage here.

Your Answer:



An Answer: Rashi notes the switch from plural, "And he blessed them" to the singular, "Through you (singular) shall Israel bless."

How does his comment deal with this? This is very difficult!

Your Answer:



An Answer: Actually, the verse has to be read in two parts. "And he blessed them" refers to the blessing they received above in verse 15, where the lads were blessed. This, then, is their - Ephraim and Menasheh's - blessing. Rashi tells us that this is the blessing that a father is to give to his son – the blessing that Joseph's lads received. What was that blessing? That their forefather's names should be called upon them, and that they should multiply like the fish of sea.

Now the plural-singular discrepancy is cleared up. Through Joseph (singular) a child will receive their – Ephraim and Menashe's (plural) blessing.



We say, "May God make you like Ephraim and Menasheh." Meaning not that the son is to be like Ephraim and Menasheh (whatever that could mean!), but that their blessing should be the same as that received by Ephraim and Menasheh.



The blessing that Joseph received (verse 15) was that his children, the lads, multiply like the fish of the sea. The ultimate blessing is that our children shall also have children who will follow in the ways of our fathers. As it says: "My name and the name of my fathers, Isaac and Abraham."

This is what Rashi is teaching us.

A verse that seemed self-evident was, on closer inspection, much more complicated - until Rashi clarified matters.


Shabbat Shalom,
Avigdor Bonchek

January 7, 2006

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Visitor Comments: 3

(3) Moshe ben Avram, December 8, 2013 11:33 AM

"as" Not "like"

We only need to look at all that Ephraim & Menashe were blessed with: numerous offspring that maintained their Israelite identity despite the odds, the largest amount of the most fertile land in Israel, and peace. Despite all that the two boys and the two tribes could have fought each other for, they never did.

(2) Jim, December 17, 2007 12:48 PM

The brothers are united

And he blessed them is in plural. He blessed Menasheh and Ephraim. They were two individuals. But when Bnei Yisrael will bless (in the singular), a united Yisrael will not regard one greater than the other, even though "and he placed Ephraim before Menasheh".
The blessing is that Bnei Israel will regard each and every individual Jew as being worthy of the same blessings, no matter what their station in life.

(1) sam, January 7, 2007 5:27 PM

I like this website

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