In 1948, the first census taken by the State of Israel placed the population at 780,000 -- 91% Jewish and 9% Arab. A vigorous influx of Jews would arrive the next few years, when 750,000 Jewish refugees fled from Arab countries. Subsequently, Israel has witnessed the dramatic homecoming of Jews from Ethiopia, the former Soviet Union, and dozens of other lands. As of 2013, the population of Israel stands at 8 million, of which 20% is Arab.