All for One

Tisha B'av and the secret of Jewish unity.

Click here if you are unable to view this video.

With thanks to The Temple Institute Jerusalem for permission to use some of their artwork.

Comments (80)

(73) Linda Mermelstein, August 14, 2016 7:18 PM

Tisha B'av video by Charlie Harary

Loved the message of brotherly love and unity and working together by thinking less of our own ego. Great message. So if this is a Jewish concept, explain to me why so many Orthodox Jews look at the rest of us 100% Jews, as goyim, wouldn't want their children to marry ours, one shomer shabbos rabbi won't eat in the house of another because they are not chalav Israel or for some other reason? Why do we argue so much among ourselves? I always said this lack of unity is the reason we have no peace in Erez Israel. But if this is the essence of Judiaism and the reason for the destruction of the Beit Hamikdash, why do the religious not get it? Why do we have so much extremism among Jews which has only divided us more and more? I'd like to understand us better. It would help me help my own children "get" and understand the beauty I know in my religion but sometimes I think many fanatical Jews are really practicing another religion than my Judaism and from what I imagine Hashem intended for us. So many rules, laws and controls were set later by man himself and man has a huge ego as we know. Thanks in advance.

(72) Alaine Apap Bologna, August 14, 2016 9:19 AM

beautifully said!

'L'union fait la force', in French. 'One for all and all for one'l was the motto that William Tell allegedly stated on the Gruetli in 1291.
Your statement is a good reminder of the origins of christian religions, which we poached and warped with time. It's good to listen to you, to go back to basics.

(71) Anonymous, July 23, 2015 12:49 AM


Thanks for this easy-to-understand and yet so important video. Keep teaching - you have touched our hearts.

(70) Anonymous, August 5, 2014 3:40 PM

Than you.

Thank you so much for such a great, practical, and inspiring video.

(69) mom, July 16, 2013 4:20 PM

how to stop it?

Whne you see it going on all around you, when the school, religious institutions, camps, playgroups, all allow the kids to pick on one another, bully one another, and ignore the please of the kids being picked on, even when the parents intervene - how do we stop it in others? We stopped going to our synagogue because the other kids wouldn't stop picking on my kids because of one thing or another, mostly because my kids were in public school. We tried talking to people, it didn't help.

Anonymous, July 18, 2013 11:40 PM

Solution (Bezrat Hashem) to "how to stop it?"

This may be some comfort to you: I'm a 17 years old and I go to public school. However, I'm also accepted by the Jewish religious community in Seattle and the religious kids who go to school nearby. They are very kind to me and treat me with respect (don't treat me differently). I believe that it depends on the location where a person resides. Everyone is at a different level (hashcafa). Although a Jewish kid may be religious, unfortunately, it does not mean he/she will be necessarily fully developed in their ways of human to human interaction. Further study of Torah (mussar) is a great antidote for these people. One solution could be to have your kids meet with other religious kids on line through a Chavrusa learning session. I do this every Monday with a religious friend in Baltimore, Maryland. In general, I believe the way to prevent bullying is for people to explain to others how they feel. This will diminish differences between individuals. It's very sad what you are going through and I feel your pain. Don't give up! Eventually, Hashem will set up the right people to assist your children! :) If you need any further help, my e-mail is

mom, July 26, 2013 4:49 PM

thank you

Thank you for your response. We are going to a conservative synangogue now where some of the kids friends also are members and go to hebrew school together. It's nice to hear there are communities which accept children from all backgrounds. I wish you the best of luck, but I can see you are on a good path already!

(68) Anonymous, July 16, 2013 3:43 PM

tisha b'av

this film and message were great. i have an issue re all the tisha b'av films. all begin and end with music. if these are specifically for the 9 days etc then the music has no place. p,ease see if this can be addressed.

(67) Sandy Shinensky, July 16, 2013 12:38 PM

Kol Hakavod!

The way you discuss priorities, and how they should apply to
all of us, makes so much sense! May we all try to be as good followers , as you are a leader.

(66) Shmuel Y, July 16, 2013 12:27 PM

not just our position, His position

A lack of unity doesn't just show our lack of commitment to Him. It shows that we our lacking in trust. If we believed He only had our best interest in mind, we would not have any or discord with anyone. We would be secure knowing that the infinite, all-loving, omniscient and omnipotent Creator is giving us exactly what we need right now.
No one else would ever seem like a threat.

(65) Leah, July 10, 2013 2:02 AM

Outstanding Video!

Another great lesson! Thank you so much for always inspiring us by creating more light in a world that is filled with media that brings the opposite!

vincent, July 11, 2013 4:14 PM

Good lesson for family

Good progressive teaching for my purpose in life.

(64) frank, July 6, 2013 10:27 PM

i need to move

After watching this jam way to selfish. I need to move out of the way the I must be a team player. L-rd I am really sorry for being selfish.

(63) Jody Steinberg, July 30, 2012 12:48 AM

yasher koach

Ireally found your 2 Tisha B'Av videos inspiring. Thanks.

(62) Sharona, July 17, 2012 10:13 PM

i agree, we should understand that we are on the same team and need to work together. Working on a common goal together helps. I pray for something positive to inspire us like joining others for a Shabbat meal.

(61) SANDRINE, July 13, 2012 4:42 PM


No One can leave alone. You choose your friends,love your family: A team is United: for the best and worse, life is beautiful; but everyone can fall,so: give your hand and also take another one. Unity is strong,very strong.

(60) Sandy & Chana Goodman Dallas Texas, July 12, 2012 11:09 PM

Well put Charlie!

The unity of G-d is reflected when people are united together. It says in the Torah "He became King over Yeshurun when the tribes of the nation gathered in unity." ( Deuteronomy 33:5) Only when were are united in brotherhood then we can get a sense of Hashem's Fatherhood. Sandy & Chana Goodman Dallas Texas

(59) David S. Levine, July 10, 2012 11:51 PM

A Fine Video

Actually this video was shown last year. I remember it because it obviously made an impression on me. Yes, we desperately need Jewish unity, but does that mean that any of us must bive up our religious-political positions and beliefs? No, it does not, but we must concentrate on those issues which unite us and THE issue is Israel's survival. (Or is it to the left winger among us?) At any rate, it should be.

(58) Anonymous, July 10, 2012 5:48 PM

great work

This was done in a simple and touching way without condescension

(57) Anonymous, July 10, 2012 2:27 PM

This video is great! A must see for everyone

(56) Anonymous, July 10, 2012 1:50 PM

What a great and convincing message. Everyone in the world should watch this video!!

(55) Jim.Wright, December 29, 2011 4:17 PM

I really enjoy and I'm always amazed at the quality of the films you make and the excellent teaching you give to those of us who visit your site on a daily basis.G-d Bless you all at Aish. Thank you so much for all you do.

(54) dorothy r bienen, November 26, 2011 4:07 PM

Harry is amazing......

I have been a fan of Mr. Charlie since I first heard him speak! What an amazing speaker and presenter he is...anything he talks about I will be listening. I am all for Charlie! Great job about what we need to do and how to do it!Thanks sooooo much, DRB

(53) Ch. Garner, August 20, 2011 10:05 PM

thank you

Spoke clearly and true to what faces all of us. Thank you and Shalom.

(52) sarla, August 10, 2011 3:17 PM

Enlightment, removal of ignorance & right streamline.

The message of Unity, Oneness is really a paramount importance. Let good sense prevail upon all human - beings ! Thanks to the Creator.

(51) Anonymous, August 10, 2011 10:59 AM

that was really good...thanks....shalom...amy

(50) Chana Gros, August 10, 2011 10:58 AM

Dear Rabbi Harrari, I thought this video about Jewish unity was great. It spoke to me in such a meaningful way. It was presented in a "light" way, but the insights, thoughts, and torah in it were very powerful. They really spoke to me....and I hope it changed me, as well. It should be distributed and seen by all "loving" Jews who want to bring on the geula, sooner. Thank you, Chana Gross, Old City, Yeryshalayim

(49) yehudit, August 10, 2011 6:41 AM


Thank you for a new focus on unity: ITS ABOUT G-D. ITS NOT ABOUT ME. Such a refreshing and PRACTICAL piece of advice amongst all the other "love your brother" and "love everyone" unity-speak messages out there that are TRUE, of course, but not specific in how to accomplish. Well Done. A true Kiddush Hashem.

(48) Anonymous, August 10, 2011 5:18 AM

well done!!

got the whole point said in an entertaining meaningful way. well done!!

(47) Anonymous, August 10, 2011 2:44 AM

In God we trust.

Your message on unity is of paramount importance and relevance at this time in Israel's history. We are praying for unity in the kinesset with PM Netanyhu and all Israelis to turn to God. Humble yourselves and pray as a nation for His devine intervention on the decision Obama's and the infamous quartet are endeavoring to impliment in Sept. May God who watches jealously over Israel mercifully intervene. Lydia Ikura

(46) Anonymous, August 10, 2011 2:16 AM

The message is poignant and very well said.

I'd like to take issue with the background photos. While the message is conveyed beautifully, some of the photos seem inappropriate and immodest.

(45) (a)David, August 10, 2011 1:48 AM

I shared this because its message is both poignant and universal...

I shared this because its message is both poignant and universal...

(44) Leonar Elkins, August 10, 2011 12:47 AM


I love the message this brings

(43) Barry Morgenstern, August 9, 2011 8:10 PM

Couldn't have said it better....

WOW!!! Thank you..... Just love it!!

(42) Sylvie Binisti, August 9, 2011 5:17 PM

Thank you !

BEAUTIFUL !!! I hope we can also unit with non-Jews........ ie everywhere where life & love is :-)

(41) Gerald Schroeder, August 9, 2011 7:02 AM

This is to the core, Thanks

Thanks. very meaningful in an engrossing way

(40) Susan, August 9, 2011 4:47 AM

An Inspirational Message

That was very cool! Thank you, Charlie.

(39) Ruchie, August 9, 2011 12:58 AM

Inspiring! May your message unite us all

(38) Anonymous, August 9, 2011 12:47 AM


it is really sad i might cry

(37) Anonymous, August 9, 2011 12:22 AM

I think this was a great uplifting video

(36) Anonymous, August 8, 2011 10:56 PM


This is the best explaination, theologically speaking in very practical terms, that I've heard for the blessing of who Jews are to the world. Puts a whole new perspective on why Jews are so blessed and how they in turn bless the entire world, such as with the inventions, cures, discoveries, etc. Thanks.

(35) Multiple Reasons, August 8, 2011 10:39 PM

Numerous reasons for the destruction

The Gemara mentions many reasons that the Bais Hamikdash was destroyed, why do people commonly say that there is only one reason, or that it is even the main reason? The gemara mentioned many reasons?!?!

(34) Joan, August 8, 2011 10:26 PM

Thank you

(33) Pauline Robinson, August 8, 2011 9:42 PM

What was the Holocaust?

You must be kidding. The single most catastrophic event in Jewish history was the Holocaust not the destruction of one building. I don't think 6 million Jews were hunted down and destroyed when the Temple was destroyed.

Jewish Mom, August 11, 2011 8:05 AM

Not just the desctruction of one building!

Pauline, you are mistaken if you think that our mourning on Tisha B'Av for the destruction of both Temples as THE MOST cataclysmic events in Jewish history is simply about the desctruction of mere buildings, no matter how majestic and central to Jewish national independence! The Temples meant that G-d's Divine Presence was in our midst (more outstandingly in the time of the first Temple than the second), and we were on a higher spiritual level. The absence of the Temples clouds our awareness of G-d as is evident all around us, making it so much more challenging to connect with G-d as opposed to sinking into selfish, self-serving behaviors. THIS is what we mourn - our distance from G-d. As an aside, simply in terms of the horrific torture and loss of life, the Holocaust does not eclipse the suffering at the time of the destruction of both Temples. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the Roman siege, of which a majority were Jewish, and that an additional 97,000 were captured and enslaved. That is nowhere near the total number of Jews murdered in the entire era of the descruction of the second Temple and doesn't include the many murdered by the Babylonians in the time of the first Temple. There are many Midrashim describing gruesome torture (e.g. bashing babies' heads) at that time. In terms of percentages of total Jewish population nearly 2,000 years ago, the decimation was most likely larger then. But that's not really the main point. It's feeling connected with G-d as He openly manifests His loving presence in an our midst. A pale comparison: the difference between our parents showing their unconditional love with hugs and kisses, or being thousands of miles away from them, sometimes hearing loving messages and sometimes hearing messages of rebuke such as "Stop spending money irresponsibly." "Why don't you buckle down and work hard" etc. Even if we know they love us and are concerned for our good, it doesn't feel quite the same, does it?!

(32) Jonas Rabinovitch, August 8, 2011 7:00 PM

Union Means Less Competition and More Cooperation

Good text. The next serious step is for all of us to agree to compete less among congregations; to compete less among orthodox, conservative or reform; to stop this subtle and ridiculous competition for fashion statements and dressing up during the High Holidays; to stop thinking that we are above all other religions; to stop thinking that our G'd is better than everybody else's G'd; to stop thinking that our only goal in life is to make more money; to stop showing off or hiding our wealth; to realize that the only true wealth is a spiritual one. The question is: how many Jews are really prepared to embrace these principles?

(31) Anonymous, August 8, 2011 6:13 PM

Thanks for your wonderful insight and I hope that "most" of the world would see and hear these words. Thanks a mil!

(30) Tim Lieder, August 8, 2011 5:55 PM

Then again

There were also the psychotic zealots who were killing everyone that didn't get with their program and pretty much made it impossible for the Romans to do anything BUT destroy Jerusalem. I don't think they played hockey.

(29) Esther Rochel, August 8, 2011 5:18 PM


So inspiring and insightful. Thank you so much.

(28) Raquel Werblud, August 8, 2011 5:17 PM

Great message

Great message, one powerful meaning of Tisha B Av. We want Moshiach now!

(27) Abe, August 8, 2011 4:14 PM


The most depressing moment for me was when in Israel I saw the Brasslaw hasid passing by the Lubaviche hasid on Shabbat and neither one greated each other with "A geet Shabis". If such animosity exist between the two descendants from the same Bal Shemtov , what can be expected from the rest?

(26) Diane Gorlick, August 8, 2011 4:05 PM

I am of jewish parents but I am an atheist. I share with strangers, I hold no grudges, I am kind most times to my kids and others kids, I hold no jealousy and I have compassion and empathy for those less fortunate. I know believers who are not worthy of any attributes I possess. God is not the answer. Look at the christian evangelists-biggest hypocrits ever. I believe the opposite. Most humans have not yet evolved to greatness but it comes from within. Along the way religion and nationalism has corrupted societies. To me jbeing jewish is a race, a way of life, not a religion. A good representation of a contented peaceful life is the Dali Lama.

Anonymous, August 11, 2011 8:32 AM

Judaism teaches morality and goodness

Diane, it is wonderful that you are a caring, empathetic and compassionate person. It undoubtedly comes from your Jewish heritage, whether or not you are aware of it. Judaism is what brought morals to the world. In Abraham's time, people were barbaric idol worshippers and it was Abraham, the Father of the Jewish Nation, who taught kindness and compassion based on a G-d-centered outlook. It's true that people have behaved in horrible and corrupt ways in the name of religion. But if you would look deeply and honestly into your Jewish heritage, you will discover that man-based morality has no true base as the "cultured" Germans proved not so many years ago. Read Lawrence Keleman's book "Permission to Believe" about four rational approaches to G-d's existence which includes a chapter on "The Moral Approach to G-d's Existence." You'll find it fascinating. Your goodness shows that you are in essence a very spiritual person seeking to raise your spiritual awareness, further proven by the fact that you are reading articles on You will certainly find this book meaningful. Here's a link to an Aish article called "Conflicts of a Buddhist Jew": And here's another Aish article on a related topic called "India to Israel": Enjoy!

(25) Anonymous, August 8, 2011 3:02 PM


(24) Yocheved, August 8, 2011 2:45 PM

Lovely video and your focus on unity is so critical

Lovely video and your focus on unity is so critical in this difficult time in history. We also loved this inspiring video from Israel on 9th of Av.

(23) fusian, August 8, 2011 1:56 PM


Pure, beautiful and direct. Now if we can just all get along.... Toda Raba

(22) Anonymous, August 8, 2011 12:55 PM

Right on! Thank you. Everyone can use this! Amen.

I appreciated this clip very much and will be forwarding it to family and friends.

(21) Anonymous, August 8, 2011 12:46 PM

brilliant teaching about devotion to g d.

this lesson is well told by anecdotal story. thanks so much.

(20) ruth housman, August 8, 2011 12:36 PM

the significance of ONE

Since this is about team work and a goal, about winning, have you noticed that aurally the word ONE and WON are the same? I agree with you so much about losing the self in terms of humility and that ego is a big stumbling block in a formation of unity, of ONE, because being on top is so important. I think there is a message that is not coming through, and that is, even IF, even IF, we believe it's our mission to bring this light into the world and keep it there, if anyone not Jewish read this, would THEY not feel a sense of apartness and that this was a not humble thing to say? I mean, One NESS involves everyone, and to make a statement about a mission that seems so lofty, to be "better' in some ways to others, is NOT about humility. I have been around the world, and there are many, not Jews, bringing in the light, in beautifully deep and sensitive ways, and the message, about unity, is actually not ours alone. So IF, it is true, we are the bringers, then we're all of us Jews, everywhere, because otherwise I can say, it's not true. Because humility IS the key. We are in a world of ONE, and there are singers such a BONO of U2 also proclaiming this, and he's not Jewish, and gifting the world a vision that is same.

Anonymous, August 8, 2011 11:04 PM

to Ruth Housman

Humility does not mean letting everyone treat you like dirt. It is an ultimate recognition of God's blessing upon your life and realizing without His blessing, we would be no where. He is the one teaches us how to prosper and also teaches our hands to war. All good things come from heaven above. It is being better than others when others do treat you like dirt, but in stead of doing what comes naturally such as hitting back, you walk in peace with them. Well exemplified by Netanyahu right now, and by so many previous Israeli prime ministers.

Anonymous, August 11, 2011 8:50 AM

We are unique but not exclusive

Ruth, G-d gave Jews a mission to spread to the world, via keeping every one of the Torah's commandments which are the blueprint of the entire universe. This does not mean that there are not good and compassionate non-Jews, but it does mean that they were not assigned the Jewish mission. We are a unique nation, but not exclusive. Non-Jews can join if they choose to via conversion which includes undertaking all the Torah's commandments. It is not lack of humility to say that the Jews were granted a mission by G-d. That is how G-d chooses to operate His world. And as Charlie Harary points out, our mission is not about us, it's about G-d. If we hautily focus on Jewish choseness as an ego trip of power or uniqueness as opposed to our responsibily to serving G-d (which includes serving humanity) in the exact way that He specified, that THAT is NOT the Jewish mission. You speak about love. The Jewish mission IS about love - about loving G-d and loving humanity and G-d directs us how to express it. But we can't redefine our task by rejecting our choseness! It is G-d's plan and there's no use denying it. As I already pointed out, all of humanity can choose to join the mission by undertaking its fulfillment after halachic conversion.

(19) Anonymous, August 8, 2011 12:28 PM

What about idolatry and not keeping the Sabbatical Rest?...This is what seems to be the core of why the First Temple was destroyed and Babylonian captivity took place. Not that the message isn't good and true....but is it really relevant to this particular truth?

(18) nahum gedalia, August 8, 2011 12:01 PM


Straight to the point and precisely the truth. G'd should help us to put this lesson in practice. Congratulations!

(17) Beverly Kurtin, August 7, 2011 6:32 PM


The absence of love for all Jews is what is preventing Moshiach from coming and the building of the third Temple. When we say the Shema every day, do we think of only Hashem as being echad? That is not true; all Jews are echad, an indivisible unity. When we are not, we do not deserve Hashem's blessings, yet he continues to pour out his blessings continually. However, we need to ask ourselves a question: How much longer will he be patient with us, and what will be the result of him turning his back on us again?

(16) Anonymous, August 7, 2011 4:11 PM

Thank You. Great message and well presented.

(15) Morah Debbie, August 7, 2011 3:22 PM

Once again great job!

Charlie--all your videos are great; this was one of my favorite. Wait? I think that with each one I see!

(14) Rivkah Bergman, August 7, 2011 2:13 PM

Unity with man and Hashem

This is a brilliant clip about unity with Hashem and each other. Thank you Charlie, I sent the clip to my friends and relatives! We should all do a transformation right befor T'sha B'Av so we will be zocha to the Geula Shelamah. Amen!

(13) Anonymous, August 5, 2011 10:47 AM

So timely

Some weeks ago a whole upheaval started in Israel. Then I thought to myself :"finally the Jewish people is uniting to bring a semblance of social justice in this country, independently of what our political views are". I proved myself utterly wrong when the real agenda of the leftist surfaced. SUCH A WASTED OPPORTUNITY

(12) Regina, August 5, 2011 2:36 AM


If we could become genuinely united, we wouldn't have to worry about our external enemies. Unity - ACHDUT- is the key, THE SOLUTION to the problems we have, and each of us must strive to reach across and BUILD BRIDGES. It's much too easy to focus on differences and turn those differences into reasons to erect barriers. Mr. Harary, you hit the bull's eye - HAZAK U'BARUCH!

(11) Anonymous, August 5, 2011 12:34 AM

thank u for this wonderful video. i attended one of your presentations when you were in toronto a few months ago and enjoyed it very much. have a meaningful tisha bav!

(10) Gary, August 4, 2011 11:09 PM

Wonderful Thoughts, But...

A great video with a beautiful idea I truly believe in. But many Jews think they are bringing honor to G-D by standing up for what they think is right even if that means arguing with other Jews who feel differently. How can unity be achieved under these circumstances? I know the answer has something to do with differing from a place of love instead of ego, but not sure how:)........Gary

(9) Frederica Steller, August 4, 2011 6:25 PM

Without unity between people, relationships, etc. fall apart.

This video has been a real eye-opener. The idea that with unity between either team members, etc. is what holds things together, is so profound, and important. Without unity, every relationship we hold dear can literally fall apart. Thanks for your video! Shalom Tov!

(8) Rosen, August 4, 2011 5:30 PM

concerns for selfishness vs. selflessness

Even if we are worried about being to selfish in life, then that can be one step forward in humility in order to obtain selflessness.

(7) Rosen, August 4, 2011 5:27 PM

less me, more we

It's important to remember that as part of Hashem's creation, it's best to focus on less me and more WE.

(6) Jennifer, August 4, 2011 4:47 PM

about the being one team

You guys are unbelievable in your work to teach, inspire and bring unity among everyone! You do it in such a beautiful way.

(5) Anonymous, August 4, 2011 3:05 PM

The main focus this year seems to be about getting along. The reason why the Temple was destroy was the Jewish revolt on the Romans, and the Jews lost. Was it because when they went into battle, they all didn't agree, should we try to overthrow the Romans and take back the city, or should we try to get along with them in control of our city, and the house was divided so it couldn't stand? Every year is different, what Tisha B'Av experiences are, and what learning lessons from them. The sadness that occupants the holiday, is rejection. We loved the world to give them G-d, and they rejected us and G-d. That's what it would of felt like, if we were standing in front of the Temple being ablaze with fire. The tears of rejection of our G-d, and G-d being the most important thing in our lives, our lives being centered around the Temple, and we watched, as they destroyed our love to the world, for humankind, through the Temple. After the shock, the displacement, we realized G-d is still with us. G-d sent us out, covering the earth, G-d was doing a new thing. We don't stand in one place anymore, when the Temple was destroyed, we stand individually, independently. We are a group, with independence, and we should be thankful we have it. The game for example, switched from hockey to golf, with individual score cards. Let's enjoy being on the greens together, while we play the game.

(4) lisa, August 4, 2011 10:28 AM


Where were you when I was in school?? The teachers went on & on about how bad the Jews were..about destruction of a 2,000 year old building ...but rarely did they bring it to our just did. Have a meaningful fast.

(3) Anonymous, August 4, 2011 8:10 AM

Shema Israel....

I so enjoy Mr. Harary's videos. I love the way he verbalizes such basic truths so one can so easily grasp the concepts being taught. I truly believe that a good start to bringing the whole Jewish people into unity again would be for each and every Jew to come together through commitment to the Shema. I was reading a teaching that on Shabbat Chazon that every Jew is given a vision of the Third Temple which will be built. This is my vision of that Temple being built: Jews coming together in unity. And I believe that unity can start with Jews coming together through commitment to the Shema. Like a rams horn calling them to come back to G-d and come together and remember that G-d is still G-d. That G-d is still G-d of Israel and the Jewish people. That in this unity true peace can finally come to Jerusalem.

(2) jaffa golda, August 1, 2011 4:48 PM



(1) Ruth Knopf, August 1, 2011 1:25 AM

hakarat hatov for your inspiring clips

i work as a guidance counselor and a therapist with youngsters of all ages . i give social skills classes and i find your clips to be on target for the message i am trying to convey i used them in the past and am planing to use them in the future thank you!


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